In reality, it is impossible to say what might happen, but it highlights the complexity of cross-cutting trade negotiations. SACUM countries are entitled to duty-free and quota-free access to their exports under the EU-SADC EPA. Given the developed nature of its economy, South Africa is treated less well for some of its agricultural, fish and aluminum exports. A new trade provision has been adopted, allowing SACUM states and the UK to purchase and use EU inputs for production in order to export to the other party`s markets. This has ensured the continuity of integrated value chains in South Africa, the EU and the UK, particularly in the automotive industry. This agreement-in-principle demonstrates our commitment to expanding trade with developing countries and reviving the economies of southern Africa and the United Kingdom. In order to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by the AFCFTA, Brexit and COVID-19 Africa and Great Britain ABC triangle, policymakers need to identify and correct the problems encountered in EU-Africa trade agreements that have defined previous trade relations with the UK and, from a political point of view, to consolidate trade agreements with peace and security agreements that facilitate trade. All trade is then covered by the usual rules of the World Trade Organization, which means that normal import duties apply and many SA products lose their duty-free status. The European Union`s free trade agreement contributes to EU growth: in 2018, the EU was the world`s second largest exporter (15.5%) before the United States (10.6%) China (15.8%).
 The outcome of these discussions will have an impact on the South African economy, particularly trade. The EU, as a regional bloc, is South Africa`s largest trading partner and South Africa is the EU`s largest trading partner in Africa. South Africa has a long and important trade relationship with the United Kingdom. Before leaving the EU, the UK was South Africa`s second largest trading partner in the EU regional community, after Germany. The country is also South Africa`s fourth largest export market, behind China, Germany and the United States. This new agreement, once signed and entered into force, will ensure the continuity of our $9.7 billion trade relationship and allow our businesses to continue to support our mutual prosperity and economic development. After leaving the European Union, the UK plans to negotiate trade agreements to replace and complement members of the EU Customs Union. Since October 2020[update], the UK has concluded a new trade agreement (with Japan) for the continuation of 20 existing agreements (EU) and new negotiations are under way.